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Dan Howard




Location: Maitland, NSW, Australia
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PostPosted: Sat 13 Jun, 2015 2:09 am    Post subject: Regulations regarding musters and militias         Reply with quote

I was wondering whether we could collect here as many different sources that give us the military equipment that people were required to bring when being summoned to muster or when serving in a militia. Usually the amount of property a person owned determined the equipment he was required to have. It would be interesting to compare the equipment required from differnet cultures and the same culture at different periods.
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Last edited by Dan Howard on Sat 13 Jun, 2015 2:37 am; edited 1 time in total
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Dan Howard




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PostPosted: Sat 13 Jun, 2015 2:14 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Here are some Scottish examples:

James III (1456)
"And that no poor man nor unprovided be charged to come to any raids in England, and that each man whose goods extend to 20 marks be furnished at least with jack, with sleeves to the hand or else a pair of splints, a sallet or a pricking hat, a sword and a buckler, a bow and a sheaf, and if he can not shoot that he shall have an axe and a targe either of leather or of board with two handis (handgrips?) on the back. And throughout all shires they are to be warned to provide for such things and to come and make their 'weapon-showing' before the sheriffs, bailies or stewarts of regalities on the morning after the law days after Yule. And whoever comes not bearing as appropriate, after his fault, is to be punished in his goods, and so forth their 'weapon-showing' is to be continued from 30 days to 30 days, etc. "

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James V (1540)
"In the first, that every noble man, sic as earl, knight, and baron, and every great landed man having one hundred pounds of yearly rent, be (en)armoured in white harness, light or heavy as they please, and armed according to his honour, and that all others of lower rent and degree in the lowland half jack of plate, hauberks or brigandine, gorget or pisane, with splints, pants of mail, with gloves of plate or mail, and that all others our sovereign lords' leiges, gentlemen and yeomen, half jacks of plate, hauberks, splints, sallet or steel helmet with pisane or gorget, and every other man with sword, and that no manner of weapons be admitted in 'weapon-showing' but spears, pikes stark and of 6 ells of length, light axes, halberds, handbows and arrows, crossbows, culverins, two handed swords, and every man to be armed as said under the pain [penalty for non-compliance] of 5 pounds to be taken from every landed man, 50 shillings from every gentleman and 20 shillings from every yeoman..."

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Scottish Privy Council (1552) for the formation of "tua ansaingyeis of fittmen," to be raised in the Highland portion of Lord Huntley's lieutenancy, for service in France.

"Substantiously accoutred with jack and plate, steel helmet, sword, buckler, new hose and new doublet of canvas at the least, and sleeves of plate or splints, and one spear of six ells long or thereabouts."

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James VI (1575)
"Every noble man, sic as earl, lord, knight and baron, and every landed man having three hundred marks of yearly rent or above, be (en)armoured in harness, light or heavy as they please, and horses according to their honour and estate; and that all others of lower rent and degree have brigandines, jacks, steel helmets, sleeves of plate or mail, swords, pikes, or spears of six ells long, culverins, halberds, or two handed swords; and in the Highlands, haubergeons (habirschons), steel helmets, aketons, swords, bows and quivers (dorlochs), culverins, under the pain [penalty for non-compliance] every landed man not (en)armoured as said is 5 pounds, every unlanded gentleman or yeoman of substance 40 shillings, and every common yeoman 20 shillings."

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Niels Just Rasmussen




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PostPosted: Sat 13 Jun, 2015 5:24 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Valdemar II Sejr (Victorious) gave the Jyske Lov [Law of Jutland, including Funen] in 1241 - other law existed for Zealand and Scania. It is written in Danish with latin letters.
Source: http://www.middelalderinfo.dk/jyskelov-bog3.php

Book 3 has paragraphs about the "Leding" (called in Latin: Expeditio) system: The weapon and armour parts are underlined and will be translated, highlighted..

First the equipment of the Styrismand [Captain of each ship called into Leding]:

Book 3, chapter 3:
Old Danish:
¶ Vm hæstæ leghæ oc brynni.
Styræs man scal fangæ sik sialf hæst.oc brynni. oc takæ af hwar hafnæ ni skippæ rugh for bathæ. at sanctæ michæls mis. oc tho æi[1] andræ aar æn thær lething gæær wt.
¶ hwilk styræs man thær æi ær vmboz man. takær meræ mæth nokær thwang. giuæ kunung thre mark. æn ær han vmboz man. mistæ siit lææn
.

Modern Danish
Om Heste- og Brynjeleje.
Styrismanden skal selv skaffe sig Hest og Brynie og for begge Dele tage ni Skæpper Rug af hver Havne til Sankt Mikkels Dag, men dog ikke andre Aar, end naar Leding udbydes. Den Styrismand, der ikke er Ombudsmand, og som tager mere med Tvang, skal bøde tre Mark til Kongen. Men hvis han er Ombudsmand, skal han miste sit Embede.

English:
About Horses and Mail:
The "Styrismand" must himself acquire horse and armour [Brynje is here most likely mail] - either by buying or renting I assume.

NB: The following details that as compensation for this requisition he can take free provisions of rye from the district, though a max of 9 skæpper [skæppe = 1/8 of a barrel] for each harbour-districts within the greater ship-districts
[a "skipæn" = "ship district" had to provide/build one ship for the leding-campaign; a "hafnæ" = "harbour-district", that had to provide one man with weapons for the ship -> for which weapons see chapter 4 below].

Book 3, chapter 4:
Old Danish:
Vm wapnæ.
Hwar styræs man scal hauæ full mansz wapnæ. oc thæræ til et armbyrst oc thre tylft pilæ. oc een man thær scivtæ kan thæræ mæth. of han kan æi sialf scivtæ. oc hwar hafnæ bondæ thær a sciip ær. scal hauæ skiold[1] oc thry folk wapnæ. swærth oc kætælhod. oc spiwt
.

Modern Danish:
Om Vaaben.
Hver Styrismand skal have fuldt Vaabenudstyr og desuden en Armbrøst og tre Tylvter Pile og en Mand, der kan skyde med den, hvis han ikke selv kan skyde. Og hver Havnebonde, der er paa Skibet, skal have Skjold og tre Folkevaaben: Sværd, Kedelhat og Spyd.

English:
About Weapons
Every Styrisman must have a full weapon-equipment and furthermore have a crossbow and 3 tylvter [Tylt/Tylvt = 12] arrows and a man that can shoot it, if he can't shoot it himself. And every harbour-farmer on the ship must have a shield and 3 peoples-weapons: Sword, Kettlehat and Spear.

Book 3, Chapter 7:
Old Danish:
Vm kunungs mæn oc biscops.
Hwaræ thær kunungs mæn æræ æth biscops. hwat hældær the hauæ eet boo. æth fleræ.tha æræ the skylduth at hauæ fullæ wapnæ. oc faræ i lething a theræ costæ. oc takæ theræ maal.
¶ æn sittær han hemmæ vtæn laghæ forfall æth orlof. gialdæ kunung af hwar garth thær han hauær een thri things hafnæ. æth wæræ innæ bondæ. of han wil æi gialdæ sum sauth ær
.

Modern Danish:
Om Kongens og Biskoppens Mænd.
Overalt hvor Kongens eller Biskoppens Mænd er, hvad enten de har een Gaard eller flere, er de pligtige at have fulde Vaaben og drage i Leding paa sin egen Bekostning og mod-tage sin Sold.
Men sidder han hjemme uden lovligt Forfald eller Orlov, da skal han betale Kongen Tredingshavne af hver Gaard, han har, eller være Innebonde, hvis han ikke vil betale, som det er sagt.

English:
About the Kong's and Bishop's men.
Everywhere the King's or the Bishop's men are - no matter if they have one farm or more - under duty they are required to have full weapon-(set) and go into Leding on their own expenses.....

This skipæn-hafnæ division of the country meant that a Danish ship built for the leding had to have room for 40-42 rowers and the Styrismand. You had around ~800 skipæn in Denmark in the viking ages, though with the 1200's expansion in the Baltic it rose probably to 1000 skipæn.

If we just calculate with 800 ships with each 40 rowers and 1 styrismand for each ship we reach a max potential of 33.000 men for the campaign all with minimum weapon-sets listed below......800 styrismænd gives a min. cavalry force of 800, boosted since also Nobles, Bishops and the King with their men and horses travelled on their own bigger ships.

It is likely though that a reform took place after 1169 (conquest of Rügen) where the full viking age Peasant-leding of 800 ships - which probably only called for each ship member to have a shield and spear - was cut down to a fourth, with 4 skipæn taking rotation for each call, but much more was demanded of them.
So much more full weapon-set, but only 200 ships gives ~8000 much better armoured (and better provisioned) men post-1169. Called "Herremandsleding".
The Herremandsleding reform was probably a result of repeated attacks from Wendish vikings (especially on Falster and Lolland, that was severely depopulated) and was used as a "standing navy". Each of the four skipæn had to be out patrolling Danish waters for a season each (quarter of a year). Later also used against Estonian Vikings from Ösel/Saramaa.
The King could still call for more ships when going on an offensive campaign during the Baltic Crusades, though he could only do so every 4 years according to the Scanian Law.

Little digression:
Scanian Law + Scanian Church Law actually both exists in a Danish version written in Runes from 1300 AD probably written at Harrisvad Abbey:
See "Codex Runicus" online here: http://www.e-pages.dk/ku/579/
The Manuscript also includes the oldest node-fragments in Scandinavia - the text is in Old Danish: "Drømde mik en drøm i nat um silki ok ærlik pæl". = I dreamt a dream this night of silk and 'fine furs' (the meaning of "ærlik pæl" is not entirely sure).
Instrumental interpretation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zzH2DUsrVR4


Last edited by Niels Just Rasmussen on Tue 16 Jun, 2015 8:29 am; edited 8 times in total
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Pieter B.





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PostPosted: Sat 13 Jun, 2015 6:32 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Dan,

I tried googling a little but I could not find how much a mark is in Brittish Pounds or Livre Tournois

As for Militia regulations.

Here is an old Frisian law dated by the translator to be from the 12th century, though they do mention Vikings.

Source: http://www.languageandlaw.org/SKELTANA.HTM

Quote:
Thit is riucht thet thi fria Fresa ni thor fira hereferd fara, thur ban ni thur bod, than mittha ebba wt and mittha flode up, truch tha ned, thet hi thenne ower alle degan wera skel with thenne salta se and with thenne wilda witsing, mith fif wepnem, mith spada and mith forka, mith skelde and mith swerde and mith etkeres orde [thur thet, thet hi thenne ower waria skel], bi enre liudwerthene, ther hit him keth worde mith boda iefta mith bakne. Iefta sexasum swera, thet hit him mith boda ni mith bakne keth ni worde.


This is the law: the free Frisian need make no further foray, whether under proclamation or order, than out with the ebb and back with the flood; because he needs must guard the shore, day in, day out, against the salt sea and the wild viking with five weapons: with spade and with fork, with shield and with sword, and with spear's point. (And this he must do) on pain of one wergeld, whenever notice is given him by messenger or by beacon, or else swear with five compurgators that such notice was not given him.

Quote:
Thit is riucht, thet thi feder ne ach nene manne sine dochter ti iewane ower hire willa, thur thet hiu nautes wald ni ach mer hera leithena. And iefth hi se ower hire willa [and ower hire wald] and hire misskith an tha onwilla, so ach hi thet beta mith frethe and mith festa, also hise mith sinre hand forslain hede.


This is the law: the father shall not give his daughter to any man against her will, since shee has at least the right to dispose of her own person. And if he gives her against her will, and in spite of her resistance, and harm comes to her by reason of her unwillingness, he shall pay for it with fine and with fasting, as if he had slain her with his own hand.

Quote:

Thit is riucht, alder thi fria Fresa thritich punda werth erves heth an sinre were) thet hi horses and wepnes ewarad wesa skel ti ther landwere. Ief him thes berst, so skel hi with sine frana mith twam pundum beta.
Thit is riucht, thi ther tventiga punda werth [erves] an sinre were hath, thet thi skel habba truch lang wepen, iefta mith twam pundum beta.
Thit is riucht, thi ther tolef punda werth heweth erwes, thet hi skel habba spere and skeld ti ther liudwere, iefta mith twam pundum beta.
Thit is riucht, thi ther lessa hath, hi skel habba koker and boga ti ther liudwere ief mith twam pundum beta.


This is the law: when the free Frisian has thirty pounds worth of land in his possession, he shall be equipped with force(authors translation, I think Horse might be the correct translation) and weapon for the defense of the realm. If he fails in this, he shall pay two pounds for it to the magistrate.
This is the law: he who has twenty pounds’ worth of land in his possession shall have a two-handed sword (authors translation, truch lang wepen could be read as "long weapon") , or pay for it with two pounds.
This is the law: he who has twelve pounds’ worth of land shall have spear and shield for the defense of the people or pay for it with two pounds.
This is the law: he who has less shall have quiver and bow for the defense of the people, or pay for it with two pounds.
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Dan Howard




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PostPosted: Sat 13 Jun, 2015 3:06 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

The above is a good example of how important it is to use the original language. Many translators are Arts graduates and have no idea about hoplology or warfare. A lot of translations are useless for this kind of work. There is a little we know about Charlemagne's armies but I'd like to see the entire latin passage rather than excerpts:

The Capitulare missorum (792-793) said that office holders (both secular and religious) must have horses, mail (brunia), shield, lance, sword (spata) and shortsword (semispatum). In the letter sent by Charlemagne to Abbot Fulrad (806), each horseman was commanded to have a bow and several quivers of arrows in addition to the above equipment.

The Capitulary of Aachen (802-803) required landholders to supply each of their foot-soldiers with a shield, spear, and a bow with a spare string and twelve arrows. It also specifies that no soldier should carry a club (baculum), but rather a bow.

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Baard H




Location: Norway
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Posts: 98

PostPosted: Sun 14 Jun, 2015 2:53 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Here's a few from Norway, translated to English by me from a slightly older form of Norwegian than is used today, which in turn is translated from the original texts, so I'm sorry for the weird structure and wordings.

First the Gulatinglaw. It was used in the western part of Norway and is assumed to be from before the 10th century.


XIII Taxation
Chapter 15, weapon-thing.


Always when there shall be a weapon-thing, the “årmann” or “lendmann” (roughly the equivalent of sheriff and baron) shall declare it in the autumn and hold it in spring. All free and full-legal men shall come to the thing, or they shall pay 3 øre.
Now men shall show their arms, as they are written in the laws. A man shall have a broad-axe or sword and spear and shield of no worse quality than having three iron bars across with a grip that is fastened with iron nails. Now there are 3 øre in fines for each (missing) people’s arms.
The farmers shall provide two dozen arrows and a bow for each “rowing bench” (every two persons aboard the ship); and pay a fine of 1 øre for every arrow-head missing, but 3 øre for the bow.


Next the Frostatinglaw. This was used in the northern parts of Norway (Trøndelag) and was established in the 10th century, written down in the 11th-12th century.

The Leidang
13. There shall be a bow at every rowing bench. It shall be provided by the two rowing comrades with string, or they shall pay the fine of 1 øre unless they get a bow. And two dozen hafted arrows or bolts shall follow. Those the farmers shall provide. There is half an øre for every arrow missing and six for two dozens of arrows. And every leidang-obliged man shall own his own shield, spear and sword or axe. Accepted are those axes and spears that are hafted. If anyone is lacking one of these three weapons, then there shall be fined three øre, and if he is lacking every one, then we are talking nine øre, and he is to be without rights until he get hold of weapons.

15. Good shall every wooden shield be if there is three bars of iron across it and has a handle on the inside.


Then the Landlaw of Magnus Lagabøte (Law-mender). It concerned the entire non-urban population of Norway from 1274-76.

Chapter 10. On weapon-outfit
1. A bow there shall be at every rowing bench. Two men who partakes in the journey shall provide it with a string or pay the kings fine of half an øre silver, and get hold of the bow later; and two dozen arrows or bolts the farmers shall provide; but for every dozen arrows lacking, there shall be fined one and a half øre to the king.

Chapter 11. On weapon-outfit
1. The man who owns six weighted marks except his clothes, he shall own a red shield with a double-sided iron rim and spear and sword or half-thinned axe. But the man who owns twelve weighted marks except his clothes, he shall own a shield and steel-cap in addition to the aforementioned weapons.
2. And every shield-maker shall on the shields he make have a mark that is approved on the thing so that you can know who made it if there is found cheating in it; but if some does not have, then the shields are confiscatable by the kings hand.
3. But the man who owns 18 weighted marks except for his clothes, he shall own a shield and steel-cap and panzer or maille and all the people’s arms. But if someone lack these weapons, then he shall pay the fine of one øre silver to the king for each missing.
4. But every young man and those men who owns less goods than now is said, each of these shall own a shield and spear or sword or axe. But broad-axes are good and half-thinned axes who is well hafted and those spears that are dependably hafted and equipped with two nails or at least one who goes straight through and is riveted in both ends. Good shall for these men wooden shields be, when three iron bars lay across it and there is three grips on the inside, who is well riveted.
5. But when a working man takes his first service for full wages, then he shall the first summer buy an axe, the second a shield and the third a spear. But if he lacks any of these three weapons, then he shall pay fine to the king of one øre for every one he lacks. But if he lacks them all, then he shall pay fine of one øre to the king and have only half-rights until he get hold of weapons.


And last, Christian the IV's Norwegian law of 1604.

On muskets, shot and other on ships.
chapter X.


Every allodial farmer or tenant farmer who lives on a full-farm (estimated to yield the highest tax) is to own a long firelock musket with enough powder and lead, a teszack and an axe.

Every tenant farmer of a half-farm (second highest tax) is to own a long musket and a teszack.

He who lives on a third-farm shall own a musket and an axe. He who lives on fourth-farm shall own a halberd with iron bars two ells down the shaft and a teszack.

He who has recently taken over a derelict farm (Ødegaards mand) shall have a halberd and a teszack during the first three years after he starts to build on the farm, but after that in accordance with the size of the farm.

Every crofter who lives on the farm of a farmer shall have a halberd with iron bars and an axe.

Every man who does not own or has disposal of taxable land but still has good fortune shall own a long musket with its accessories and a teszack.

He who does not have good fortune shall either have a halberd and a teszack or a spear and a teszack depending on what the thingmen orders him and he has fortune for.

Every young man in service who serves for full wage shall have a spear and a teszack.

He who serves for half wage shall have a spear and a hand-axe.

He who lacks any of these arms shall pay one mark of silver in fine to the king for every arm he lacks and still get hold of the arms. He shall only have half-rights until he gets his arms.

At kveldi skal dag leyfa,
konu, er brennd er,
mæki, er reyndr er,
mey, er gefin er,
ís, er yfir kemr,
öl, er drukkit er.
-Hávamál, vísa 81
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Mart Shearer




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PostPosted: Sun 14 Jun, 2015 4:55 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

England, 1181 Assize of Arms
http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/laws/texts/ass-arms/
http://www.earlyenglishlaws.ac.uk/laws/texts/..._6/l-image

Quote:
[1]. Quicunque habet feodum unius militis habeat loricam, et cassidem, clypeum et lanceam: et omnis miles habeat tot loricas et cassides, et clypeos et lanceas quot habuerit feoda militum in dominico suo.

[2]Quicunque vero liber laicus habuerit in catallo vel in redditu ad valentiam de xvi. marcis, habeat loricam et cassidem et clypeum et lanceam: quicunque vero liber laicus habuerit in catallo vel redditu x. marcas, habeat aubergel, et capellet ferri et lanceam.

[3]III. Item omnes burgenses et tota communa liberorum hominum habeant wambais, et capellet ferri et lanceam.

[4]IV. Unusquisque autem illorum juret, quod infra festum Sancti Hilarii, hæc arma habebit, et domino regi Henrico, scilicet filio Matildis imperatricis, fidem portabit, et hæc arma in suo servitio tenebit secundum præceptum suum, et ad fidem domini regis et regni sui. Et nullus, ex quo arma hæc habuerit, ea vendat, nec invadiet, nec præstet, nec aliquo alio modo a se alienet; nec dominus suus ea aliquo modo ab homine suo alienet, nec per forisfactum nec per donum, nec per vadium, nec aliquo alio modo.

[5]V. Si quis hæc arma habens obierit, arma sua remaneant hæredi suo. Si vero hæres de tali ætate non sit, quod armis uti possit, si opus fuerit, ille qui eum habebit in custodia habeat similiter custodiam armorum, et hominem inveniat qui armis uti possit in servitio domini regis, donec hæres de tali ætate sit quod arma portare possit, et tunc habeat.

[6]VI. Quicunque burgensis plura arma habuerit, quam habere oportuerit secundum hanc assisam, ea vendat, vel det, vel sic a se alienet tali homini qui ea in servitio domini regis Angliæ retineat. Et nullus eorum plura arma retineat quam eum secundum hanc assisam habere oportuerit.

[7]VII. Item nullus Judæus loricam vel aubergellum penes se retineat, sed ea vendat, vel det, vel alio modo a se removeat, [ita quod remaneant] in servitio regis.

[8]VIII. Item nullus portet arma extra Angliam nisi per præceptum domini regis; nec aliquis vendat arma alicui, qui ea portet ab Anglia.

[9]IX. Item justitiæ faciant jurare per legales milites vel alios liberos et legales homines de hundredis, et de burgis, quot viderint expedire; qui habebunt valentiam catalli, secundum quod eum habere oportuerit, loricam et galeam et lanceam et clypeum secundum quod dictum est; scilicet quod separatim nominabunt eis omnes de hundredis suis, et de visnetis, et de burgis, qui habebunt xvi. marcas voel in catallo vel in redditu, similiter et qui habebit decem marcas. Et justitiæ postea omnes illos juratores et alios faciant inbreviari, qui quantum catalli vel redditus habuerint; et qui secundum valentiam catalli vel redditus, quæ arma habere debuerint; et postea coram eis in communi audientia illorum faciant legere hanc assisam de armis habendis; et eos jurare quod ea arma habebunt secundum valentiam prædictam catallorum vel redditus, et ea tenebunt in servitio domini regis secundum hanc prædictam assisam, in præcepto et fide domini regis Henrici et regni sui. Si vero contigerit quod aliquis illorum qui habere debuerint hæc arma, non sint in comitatu ad terminum quando justitiæ in comitatu illo erunt, justitiæ ponant ei terminum in alio comitatu eorum eis. Et si in nullo comitatu per quos ituræ sunt, ad eos venerit, et non fuerit in terra ista, ponatur ei terminus apud Westmuster ad octavas Sancti Michaelis; quod sit ibi ad faciendum sacramentum suum, sicut se, et omnia sua diligit. Et ei præcipiatur quod infra festum prædictum Sancti Hilarii habeat arma secundum quod ad eum pertinet habendum.

[10]X. Item justitiæ faciant dici per omnes comitatus per quos ituræ sunt, quod qui hæc arma non habuerint, secundum quod prædictum est, dominus rex capiet se ad eorum membra, et nullo modo capiet ab eis terram vel catallum.

[11]XI. Item nullus juret super legales et liberos homines, qui non habeat xvi. marcas vel x. marcas in catallo.

[12]XII. Item justitiæ præcipiant per omnes comitatus, quod nullus, sicut se ipsum et omnia sua diligit, emat vel vendat aliquam navem ad ducendum ab Anglia, nec aliquis deferat vel deferri faciat maironiam extra Angliam.


1. Whosoever has a knight's fee shall have a hauberk, a helmet, a shield and a lance: and every knight to have as many hauberks and helmets, shields and lances, as he has knight's fees in his domain.

2.Whosoever is a free layman having property or rent to the value of 16 Marks, have helmet, shield and lance: Whosoever is a free layman having property or rent of 10 Marks, haubergeon, iron headpiece, and spear.

3. Item, all burgesses and the whole community of free men have gambeson, iron headpiece, and spear.

4. And let every man of them take an oath, which is within the feast of St. Hilary, he will have those arms, and the Lord King Henry, namely the son of the Empress Matilda, shall bear faith, and lay hold of all these arms according to the commandments to his own service, and to the fidelity of the Lord King and his reign. And none, from which arms they have shall sell, let go, bind away, or in any other way alienate themselves from them, neither his lord take them away from him, nor give them away as a gift, or use them to post bail, or in any other way.

5. If any man dies, having possession of those arms, they remain to his heirs. If, however the heir is not of age where he may use arms, then a custodian shall be found who can serve the king until the heir comes of age, when the arms shall revert to the heir's use.

6. And whosoever burgesses have more arms than is required by this assize, let him sell them or donate them to the man who is lacking so that they may remain in service to the Lord King of England. And let none be seen having more arms than they ought to retain under this assize.

7. No Jew shall retain a hauberk or haubergeon, but let him sell for profit, or donate them, or remove the arms from himself in some other way that he may remain in service to the king.

8. Item, No one, except by order of the king, shall take arms out of England, neither shall he sell his arms to anyone who will remove them from the kingdom.

9. (Google trans) Likewise, the legal, soldiers, or to swear by the righteousness of others to do the free and lawful men from the hundreds, and of the boroughs, as many as they see expedites necessity; they that shall have the value of the chattels, in so far as it is necessary for him to have, a lance and shield, and helmet and a coat of mail, according to what has been said nominate them, all of that is that he distinguishes from the hundreds, and of the men of the neighborhood, and of the boroughs, and they that shall have xvi. rent in the principal, or in the marks voel, and likewise the one who will have ten marks. And the justices of the jurors and the others do to them, be enrolled at every moment, which, insofar as they have the chattels or 'rent'; and who, according to the value of the chattels or 'rent', which is to have armor of ought to have been; to read them, they can do this in a general way and afterwards, before the assise on the arms of their having an audience; the value of the chattels aforesaid, and according to them, they will swear that a thing or 'rent' them as instruments of, and in the service of the lord the king, according to this it shall take hold of the aforesaid assise, and the lord King Henry, in the statute, and the faith of his reign. If it should happen that there is any need for any of those who are to have those weapons, in the county court of justice when they are not in the company, there shall be to the end of the righteousness they shall appoint him them for their time limit set in another county. And were it not in the company, among whom I shall go, unto them, he shall come, and shall not be in this land, it is placed to him in the border of the Westmuster the octave of Saint Michael; that one would be to make their oath, as himself, and all that was his he loves. It was commanded that the feast of Saint Hilary, the said arms, And to him is so far as it belongs to him to have to be had.

10. Item, (Google trans.) of the righteousness by which we are going to do all the county courts can be called, that those who did not have those weapons, as was said above, the Lord of the king will take themselves to their members, and in no way take away from them the earth, or the principal sum. ( I think any not having the required arms must be taken before a jury of their peers.)

11. Item, No one legally sworn and a fee man who does not have 16 marks or 10 marks of chattel (right to jury trial extended to these men also?)

12. 12. Also, orders may be given by means of all the county courts of justice that no one, just as he loves himself, and all that they had, to enable us to buy or sell a certain ship from England, and nothing a person is to administer or cause to be carried out of England maironiam.

Some Google translation, I'm sure better modern translations are available.

ferrum ferro acuitur et homo exacuit faciem amici sui


Last edited by Mart Shearer on Sun 14 Jun, 2015 10:52 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Mart Shearer




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PostPosted: Sun 14 Jun, 2015 10:40 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Statute of Winchester, 1285
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Statute_of_Winchester


Quote:
6. And further it is commanded that every man have in his house harness for to to keep the peace after the ancient assize; that is to say, every man between fifteen years of age and sixty years, shall be assessed and sworn to armor according to the quantity of their lands and goods; that is to wit, for fifteen pounds lands, and goods of forty marks, an hauberke, an helm of iron, a lance, a knife, and a horse; and for ten pounds of lands, and twenty marks goods, an hauberke, an helm of iron, a lance, and a knife; and for five pounds of lands, a doublet, an helme of iron, a lance, and a knife; and from forty shillings of land and more up to one hundred shillings, a lance, a bow and arrows, and a knife; and he that hath less than forty shillings yearly shall be sworn to falces, gisarmes, knives, and other small arms; and he that hath less than twenty marks in goods, shall have swords, knives, and other small arms; and all other that may shall have bows and arrows out of the forest, and in the forest bows and pilets. And that view of armor be made every year two times. And in every hundred and franchise two constables shall be chosen to make the view of armor; and the constables aforesaid shall present before justices assigned, when they shall some into the country, such defaults as they shall have found about armor, and of suits, and of watches, and of highways; and also shall present all such as do lodge strangers in uplandish towns, for whom they will not answer. And the justices assigned shall present at every parliament unto the king such defaults as they shall find, and the king shall provide remedy therein. And from henceforth let the sheriffs take good heed, and bailiffs within franchises and without, greater or lesser, that have any bailiwick or forestry in fee or otherwise, that they shall follow the cry with the country, as they are able, having horses and armor so to do; and if there be any that do not, the defaults shall be presented by the constables to the justices assigned, and after them to the king; and the king will provide remedy as before is said. And the king commandeth and forbiddeth that from henceforth neither fairs nor markets be kept in churchyards, for the honor of the church.




Given at Winchester, the eight of October, in the thirteenth year of the reign of the king.

ferrum ferro acuitur et homo exacuit faciem amici sui
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Mart Shearer




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PostPosted: Sun 14 Jun, 2015 10:47 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

http://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/me...ight-first

Watch and Ward at the City Gates.
25 Edward I. A.D. 1297. Letter-Book B. fol. xxxiii. old numeration. (Latin.)

It was ordered that every bedel shall make summons by day in his own Ward, upon view of two good men, for setting watch at the Gates;—and that those so summoned shall come to the Gates in the day-time, and in the morning, at day-light, shall depart therefrom. And such persons are to be properly armed with two pieces; namely, with haketon and gambeson, or else with haketon and corset, or with haketon and plates. And if they neglect to come so armed, or make default in coming, the bedel shall forthwith hire another person, at the rate of twelve pence, in the place of him who makes such default; such sum to be levied on the morrow upon the person so making default.

In like manner, if any person shall be summoned to watch within his Ward, and shall make default, the bedel shall substitute another in his place, and on the morrow shall take from him three pence, to the use of such substitute.

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Mikael Ranelius




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PostPosted: Tue 16 Jun, 2015 5:24 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Sweden, Södermannalagen (provincial law of Södermanland), 1327:

Thessa lund scal konungs ledung ut biuda. at snækkiur ok scutur sculu til redo uæra um pingizdagha tidh med them redom flær til höre. Thætta svulu hamnu uapn uæra Skiolder ok suærd. spyut ok iarnhatter. Huar hamna scal haua muzo eller penzara eller ok plato. huar hamna scal ok hanbugha ok threa tylpte sköte haua. Af huarre hamnu. scal fiughur pund ok tiughu. tuælotina flesk ok thridiungen smör. aghi sidan konunger uald aftaca sua mykit hanum thækkiz. Thæfta scal lyusas huarn huitta sunnudagh i strengenæs.

According to the passage each crewman who were called upon to serve in the ledung (fleet) should be armed with shield (skiolder), sword (suærd), speer (spyut), kettle hat (iarnhatter), maille coif (muzo), padded jack (penzara) or a coat-of-plates (plato). Also required are bow (hanbugha ) and three dozen arrows (threa tylpte sköte).
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Niels Just Rasmussen




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PostPosted: Tue 16 Jun, 2015 7:29 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Baard H wrote:
First the Gulatinglaw. It was used in the western part of Norway and is assumed to be from before the 10th century.


XIII Taxation
Chapter 15, weapon-thing.


Always when there shall be a weapon-thing, the “årmann” or “lendmann” (roughly the equivalent of sheriff and baron) shall declare it in the autumn and hold it in spring. All free and full-legal men shall come to the thing, or they shall pay 3 øre.
Now men shall show their arms, as they are written in the laws. A man shall have a broad-axe or sword and spear and shield of no worse quality than having three iron bars across with a grip that is fastened with iron nails. Now there are 3 øre in fines for each (missing) people’s arms.
The farmers shall provide two dozen arrows and a bow for each “rowing bench” (every two persons aboard the ship); and pay a fine of 1 øre for every arrow-head missing, but 3 øre for the bow.


Next the Frostatinglaw. This was used in the northern parts of Norway (Trøndelag) and was established in the 10th century, written down in the 11th-12th century.

The Leidang
13. There shall be a bow at every rowing bench. It shall be provided by the two rowing comrades with string, or they shall pay the fine of 1 øre unless they get a bow. And two dozen hafted arrows or bolts shall follow. Those the farmers shall provide. There is half an øre for every arrow missing and six for two dozens of arrows. And every leidang-obliged man shall own his own shield, spear and sword or axe. Accepted are those axes and spears that are hafted. If anyone is lacking one of these three weapons, then there shall be fined three øre, and if he is lacking every one, then we are talking nine øre, and he is to be without rights until he get hold of weapons.

15. Good shall every wooden shield be if there is three bars of iron across it and has a handle on the inside.


Then the Landlaw of Magnus Lagabøte (Law-mender). It concerned the entire non-urban population of Norway from 1274-76.

Chapter 10. On weapon-outfit
1. A bow there shall be at every rowing bench. Two men who partakes in the journey shall provide it with a string or pay the kings fine of half an øre silver, and get hold of the bow later; and two dozen arrows or bolts the farmers shall provide; but for every dozen arrows lacking, there shall be fined one and a half øre to the king.

Chapter 11. On weapon-outfit
1. The man who owns six weighted marks except his clothes, he shall own a red shield with a double-sided iron rim and spear and sword or half-thinned axe. But the man who owns twelve weighted marks except his clothes, he shall own a shield and steel-cap in addition to the aforementioned weapons.
2. And every shield-maker shall on the shields he make have a mark that is approved on the thing so that you can know who made it if there is found cheating in it; but if some does not have, then the shields are confiscatable by the kings hand.
3. But the man who owns 18 weighted marks except for his clothes, he shall own a shield and steel-cap and panzer or maille and all the people’s arms. But if someone lack these weapons, then he shall pay the fine of one øre silver to the king for each missing.
4. But every young man and those men who owns less goods than now is said, each of these shall own a shield and spear or sword or axe. But broad-axes are good and half-thinned axes who is well hafted and those spears that are dependably hafted and equipped with two nails or at least one who goes straight through and is riveted in both ends. Good shall for these men wooden shields be, when three iron bars lay across it and there is three grips on the inside, who is well riveted.
5. But when a working man takes his first service for full wages, then he shall the first summer buy an axe, the second a shield and the third a spear. But if he lacks any of these three weapons, then he shall pay fine to the king of one øre for every one he lacks. But if he lacks them all, then he shall pay fine of one øre to the king and have only half-rights until he get hold of weapons.


As can be seen - from all these Norwegian laws mostly written down in the 1100-1200's - you seem to have a full weapon set comprising of shield, spear and then either sword or axe.
It's more or less like the Danish Jyske Lov from 1241, which have shield, spear & kettlehat, though just specifies sword, and not the option between axe or sword. [The emphasize on Crossbows in Jyske Lov - instead of bows - is certainly medieval in this instant].
The national Leding laws probably have most of it's basis from late Viking Age (in Denmark likely beginning with either Harald Bluetooth, Svend Forkbeard or Canute The Great), but it is unknown if the minimum weapon skill set required for farmers was expanded during the early middle age period.

Perhaps you already had shield, spear and a secondary weapon (axe or shield) in the Viking age for leding; or perhaps it was only spear and shield that was required as a minimum?
I think a gradual expansion of the minimal weapon set is likely!
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Baard H




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PostPosted: Tue 16 Jun, 2015 1:51 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Niels Just Rasmussen wrote:
Perhaps you already had shield, spear and a secondary weapon (axe or shield) in the Viking age for leding; or perhaps it was only spear and shield that was required as a minimum?
I think a gradual expansion of the minimal weapon set is likely!


Considering that the shield shows up in more or less all depictions of armed norsemen from the viking age and that you would most likely be dead during the first volley of arrows without one, not to mention that you would be near on useless in a line I'd say the shield most likely was an integral part of standard equipment from the set-off.
The requirement of an axe is relatively easy and cheap to fulfill and very good to have when shit hits the fan (read: the line breaks).

While we may not have the written laws from the 9th century, we have depictions and a lot of grave goods that show a lot of weapons so I think it is relatively safe to say that if you are reenacting a fighting norseman during the viking age you should strive to have the golden trio of axe/sword, shield and spear.

At kveldi skal dag leyfa,
konu, er brennd er,
mæki, er reyndr er,
mey, er gefin er,
ís, er yfir kemr,
öl, er drukkit er.
-Hávamál, vísa 81
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Niels Just Rasmussen




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PostPosted: Wed 17 Jun, 2015 4:07 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Baard H wrote:
Niels Just Rasmussen wrote:
Perhaps you already had shield, spear and a secondary weapon (axe or shield) in the Viking age for leding; or perhaps it was only spear and shield that was required as a minimum?
I think a gradual expansion of the minimal weapon set is likely!


Considering that the shield shows up in more or less all depictions of armed norsemen from the viking age and that you would most likely be dead during the first volley of arrows without one, not to mention that you would be near on useless in a line I'd say the shield most likely was an integral part of standard equipment from the set-off.
The requirement of an axe is relatively easy and cheap to fulfill and very good to have when shit hits the fan (read: the line breaks).

While we may not have the written laws from the 9th century, we have depictions and a lot of grave goods that show a lot of weapons so I think it is relatively safe to say that if you are reenacting a fighting norseman during the viking age you should strive to have the golden trio of axe/sword, shield and spear.


I absolutely agree that it is totally safe for reenactors to have a shield, spear and axe.
I was taking about the Leding-law for minimum requirements! From the Iron Age army-bog finds in Denmark you can see that the common soldiers had spears and shields as the basis. Then it seemed optional if you would further arm yourself with an axe (as only the very rich could afford swords). Most peasants would likely bring an axe on campaign on their own accord.
So it would take a "King of Power" to force a change in ancient laws, that expanded the minimum requirements for the free peasants, because it would likely lead to peasant uprisings and possible the killing of the King. The laws would call for punishment (probably forced taking of provisions) if not the minimum weapon requirement was met, so a very touchy subject (as it is a form of extra taxation).

So at what point had the King power enough to expand the minimum weapon set?
The Kings in 1100-1200 Denmark were starting to get stronger as the "institution" took over from the older base of personal charisma, so Valdemar I den Store (The Great) and his two sons Knud (Canute) VI and Valdemar II Sejr (Victorious) were apparently able to expand the minimum requirements to sword and kettle-helmet, whereas I personally find it doubtful Kings before them could have gotten away with it.
Knud IV den Hellige (Canute IV the Holy) had in 1085 called for full Leding for a planned attack on Norman England. As he was delayed in Southern Jutland because of the Holy Roman Empire massing up troops on the border, the Leding dispersed and when he tried to call it the year after, it lead to an uprising and he ended up being killed in a Church in Odense.
The oral laws probably said only call for offensive Leding every 4th year (as we can later see written down in the Scanian Law) and a King trying to change the rules at that point in time would be killed. The only reason he is called “the holy" is because he was killed in a church.

Maybe the Kings in Norway could force their peasants faster to expand requirements, or maybe in Denmark it already happened in the late Viking age; I just don't see it as totally clear-cut.

Mikael Ranelius wrote:
Sweden, Södermannalagen (provincial law of Södermanland), 1327:

Thessa lund scal konungs ledung ut biuda. at snækkiur ok scutur sculu til redo uæra um pingizdagha tidh med them redom flær til höre. Thætta svulu hamnu uapn uæra Skiolder ok suærd. spyut ok iarnhatter. Huar hamna scal haua muzo eller penzara eller ok plato. huar hamna scal ok hanbugha ok threa tylpte sköte haua. Af huarre hamnu. scal fiughur pund ok tiughu. tuælotina flesk ok thridiungen smör. aghi sidan konunger uald aftaca sua mykit hanum thækkiz. Thæfta scal lyusas huarn huitta sunnudagh i strengenæs.

According to the passage each crewman who were called upon to serve in the ledung (fleet) should be armed with shield (skiolder), sword (suærd), speer (spyut), kettle hat (iarnhatter), maille coif (muzo), padded jack (penzara) or a coat-of-plates (plato). Also required are bow (hanbugha ) and three dozen arrows (threa tylpte sköte).


This Swedish Law is a quite extensive middle age expansion. The difference with the Jyske Lov is that it gives armour requirements for the crewmen and has bows instead of crossbows [but in fact same amount of arrows - 3 tyltpt/tylvt = 36], but for every man, not just the captain/styrisman.
So it seems that there is an increased development and expansion of the "minimum requirements" throughout the middle ages.....that would take more powerful Kings.
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William P




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PostPosted: Wed 17 Jun, 2015 9:50 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

While I do not have sufficient information to make a comment, i would be interested to find out about the rules regarding the arms a man must be armed with to undergo service in the middle byzantine armies, especially the themetic troops aka part time fighters,

i know that the armement of infantry and archers etc is listed in military manuals however im not sure if we have sources for income bracketed requirements for arms. i DO know however that prospective entrants for the famous varangian guard needed to pay a fee of 6 pounds of gold i believe... as well as prove his worth in a normal byzantine regiment for about 6 months.

i know your standard byzantine pikeman (themetic or tagmatic, it doesnt say which) should be armed (according to manuals for campaigns) in a kavadion/ zava aka a padded gambeson that you can slips your arms out of the sleeves at the armpit to allow better arm movement and a felt cap as thick as can be stitched with a turban wound armoud it if they cannout afford a helmet

their arms should be a great kontarion (4m long) a shield, a sword or axe, the axe can be a normal axe or one with two blades one like the edge of sword and the other like a sharp spearhead (aka axe with back spike)

archers need to have 2 bows, and 40 arrows carried normally, as well as a quiver of 60 arrows (its believed those were set down on the ground when the archers were in stationary formations)

(not much attaentio is given to other troop type, the standard infantry and standard archer is given the most attention)

(most of this information is paraphrased from the praecepta militaria, a manual written in the reign of Nikephoras fokas in the late 10th century)

interestingly, these themetic patches of land assigned to families, mirror later medieval fuedal arrangements, n that the land was used to provide a man to serve, or the family could instead (if no able men were to be found or other reasons) could instead opt to send a cash payment... which if i remember correctly, Edward the 1st began to introduce such reforms as well for knightly obligations.
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Mart Shearer




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PostPosted: Fri 19 Jun, 2015 2:27 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Lombardy, Statutes of Bologna, 1256
http://archive.org/stream/statutidellesoc02ga...8/mode/1up

Quote:
XXXXVI. Item, Statuimus et ordinamus quod quilibet de
societate armorum debeat habere scutum seu scrimetum, elmum
vel caçetam, cubam vel guayferiam vel lameriam cum insigna
societatis intus, et eam portare in dorso in omni exercitu et cavalcata
et strenuta. in cavalcata intelligimus esse conveniens et sufficiens
unam ex insignis; in banno pro qualibet arma .v. sol. bon.
et qui de novo societatem intraverit , si intrabit a kallendis februarii
usque ad festum sancti Michaellis, debeat dicta arma habere infra
unum mensem a die introitus sui, et qui intraverit a festo sancti
Michaellis usque ad carnisprivium, habere debeat infra duos menses
a die introitus sui in banno predicto. et ministrales societatus
teneantur infra mensem ex quo intraverit inquirere predicta arma, et
punier debeant qui ea arma non habuerint et non fecerint ut dictum
est. et nihilominus postea teneantur omnia predicta arma habere.


Decrees and ordains the arms required by members of the alliance, though the armor defined is difficult to interpret: Shield or scrimetum, helm or caçetam (mail coif?), cubam or quayferiam or lameriam body armors. Requires the marking of arms with the symbols or heraldry of the alliance, both on the inside and back (inside and outside?) Requires one entering the alliance between February 1st and Michaelmas (29 September) to obtain required arms within a month, or within 2 months during the holiday season. Requires an official inspection of the arms at the time they should be obtained or penalties if this is not done. Gives a penalty of 5 solidus (gold coins) for failure to have the required arms.

Other towns and dates may be found in the linked text.

Statuti Della Societa Dei Vari, 1256
http://archive.org/stream/statutidellesoc02ga...3/mode/1up

Quote:
XXVIIII Statuimus quod quilibet de dicta societate
teneatur habere scutum et capelictam de coro vel capellum de ferro
et non caçetam , nec debeant eas impignare. et ministrales teneantur
una vice in corum mistralia rumare, non dicentes alicui.
et si invenerint aliquem non habentem ad terminam ordinatos,
offerant ei nomine banni .v. sol. bon. et nichilominus teneantur
habere.


Requires members to maintain a scutum shield; capelictam de coro (leather kettlehat?) or capellum de ferro headpiece of iron, but does not allow the caçetam (mail coif?). No body armor is required. A 5 solidus (gold coin) penalty is given to those who refuse to come to drill or to those who lack the proper equipment.

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Randall Moffett




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PostPosted: Fri 19 Jun, 2015 5:26 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Ed II vol IV 1321-1324.
96-100, 1322, april, 12, mar 25, aprl 4,
MEMBEANE 20.

Mandate to the justiciary of Ireland to raise 1,000 hobelers and 6,000 footmen
armed with haketon, basinet and gauntlets, and to conduct them to
Carlisle by the octaves of Holy Trinity. [Parl. Writs.] ByK.
The like to the treasurer to be attendant upon the justiciary herein, and
to pay out of the issues of Ireland for the wages of the said 300 men at
arms (sic) 1,000 hobelers and 6,000 foot from the time they shall leave Ireland.
Afterwards on 14 April another writ was addressed to the Treasurer in
his own name, to wit, Master Walter de Istlep. [Parl. Writs.]

Ed II vol V 1324-1327
10-
Aug 6th, 1324
Commission to Stephen de Cobeham, Ralph Sauvage, Henry de
Cobeham, and Henry de Goshale, to select in the county of Kent, the
towns of Canterbury and Rochester excepted, 1,040 footmen, 260 to
be armed with haketons, hauberks or plate armour, bacinets and
gauntlets of steel, and the remainder with haketons and steel bacinets
and other competent arms (the armour directed to be provided by the
Statute of Winchester, being only intended for the preservation of the
peace, and not being sufficient for the defence of the realm against foreign
invasion), the said armour to be provided at the expense of the commonalty
of the county, the said cities being excepted, and to be kept by
the commonalties of the towns until the selected men set out, and upon
their return to be restored to the. custody of the commonalties; and they
are to array the said selected men in twenties and hundreds. By K. & C.
The like to the above-mentioned commissioners in the respective counties
to select, arm in like proportion, and array the following numbers of footmen
in the said counties, the chief cities and towns excepted ; viz. —

Ed III vol V 1340-43
427-
Jan. 9th, 1345. Whereas, in view of the threatened invasion of England by the king's
enemies, French and Scots, the king to have the armed power of the realm in readiness, with the advice and assent of the prelates, nobles and others of experience assisting him, has ordained that all men holding a lay fee (lands of the fee of the church in the hands of prelates and other religious men and ecclesiastics, excepted) shall be assessed to arms as follows, he who has land of the value of lOOs. yearly shall be an archer and mounted, he who has land of the value of 10 l. yearly shall be a hobeler, armed at the least with a haqueton, a visor, a burnished palet, iron gauntlets and a lance (cum aketona pisario, paletto burnito, cirotecis ferreis et lancea), he who has land of the value of 25£. yearly shall be a man at arms, he who has land of the value of 501. yearly shall have with him one other man at arms, he who has land of the value of 100 l. yearly shall have with him three men at arms, and he who has beyond that amount shall be assessed at more men at arms proportionally: to give effect to such ordinance he has appointed William de Clynton, earl of Huntingdon, and those whom he shall depute, to inform himself by such ways and means as shall be expedient of the names of those who have such land of the yearly values enumerated, up to 1,000 l. yearly or more, after deducting all necessary services and reprises, in the county of Kent, and to arrest and
imprison all those whom he shall find oppose him in the premises, also to certify by Midlent Sunday next, or on that day at the latest of all that lie does herein.
The like of the following and their deputies in the counties named :—
Richard, earl of Arundel. Surrey and Sussex.
The same. Southampton.
Hugh de Courteney, earl of Devon. Devon.
Gilbert de Ellesfeld. Berks.
Ralph, baron of Stafford. Stafford.
John Darcy ' le piere.' Nottingham and Lincoln.

I'd translate visor to be different above. pisario seems to be a pisan. so neck armour, likely mail.

And some Scottish fun

Here is a record from the 1318 Scottish Parliament Roll for a more Scottish look at the basic requirements of the land-

"Concerning the equipment of those coming to the war according to [the amount] they have in goods

Item, it was ordained and assented that each layman of the kingdom having £10 in goods should have for his body in defence of the kingdom a sufficient haqueton,† a basinet, and mailed gloves with a lance and sword. And anyone who shall not have a haqueton and a bacinet should have a good habergeon†or a good iron [coat of mail] for his body, a cap of iron and mailed gloves, so that each should be prepared with the said equipment around the octave of Easter next to come [15 April 1319]. And whoever has £10 in goods [and] shall not then have all the said equipment of arms should lose all his goods. With the proviso that the lord king [Robert I] should have a half of the goods and the lord of he who was found to be in default should have the other half. And the lord king wishes that each sheriff of the kingdom with the lords of places should investigate concerning these things and immediately cause a muster after the aforesaid octave of Easter. Moreover the lord king wishes and commands that anyone having the value of one cow in goods should have a good lance or a good bow with a sheath of arrows, namely twenty-four arrows with the pertinents, under the prescribed penalty."

Latin

De armaturis veniencium ad exercitum prout habent in bonis †

Item ordinatum est† et assensum quod† quilibet homo de regno laicus habens decem libras in bonis habeat pro corpore suo in defensionem regni unam sufficientem aketonam†, unum bacinetum et cyrotecas de guerra cum lancea et gladio. Et qui non habuerit aketonam et bacinetum† habeat unum bonum† hobirgellum vel† unum bonum ferrum pro corpore suo, unum† capellum de ferro et cyrotecas de guerra, ita quod quilibet sit paratus† cum actyliis predictis circa octabas Pasche proxime futuras.† Et quicunque habens decem† libras in bonis† non habuerit tunc omnia armorum actylia predicta perdat† omnia bona sua. Ita quod dominus rex habeat unam medietatem bonorum et dominus illius qui in defectu fuerit repertus habeat aliam medietatem.† Et dominus rex vult quod singuli vicecomites regni cum dominis locorum inquirant super hiis et faciant monstrationem† statim post octabas Pasche predictas. Preterea dominus rex vult et precipit† quod quicunque† habens valorem unius vacce in bonis habeat unam bonam lanceam vel† unum bonum arcum cum uno schapho† sagittarum videlicet viginti quatuor sagittis† cum pertinentiis† sub pena prescripta.

Long citation The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to 1707, K.M. Brown et al eds (St Andrews, 2007-2013), 1318/29. Date accessed: 2 November 2010.

As well this line makes me uncomfortable how it is translated and I have not been able to get back to Scotland to have a look at the original. "And anyone who shall not have a haqueton and a bacinet should have a good habergeon†or a good iron [coat of mail] for his body, a cap of iron and mailed gloves, so that each should be prepared...". Here is the Latin on their site, " unum bonum ferrum pro corpore suo...", "simply put one good iron for their body". I have no reason to doubt their Laton so I am assuming this is it. It is not unique but in the period it is unlikely to set minimum requirements on mail and have both a hauberk and habergeon. They are minimum requirements. A hauberk is superior to a habergeon so it would be unnecessary to say you must have at least a habergeon and hauberk. I have only seen a few like this. But what sets off the alarm bells is mostly the good iron direct translation. Plates or iron listed as torso armour very likely means a pair of plates. If it were a decade later that would be much more certain. What makes me wonder most is 1318 would be earlier than the first requirement I know in large scale like this for commoners as minimum requirements but as I have said before I do not believe Scotland is as far behind as many do. As well they translate mail gauntlets, " cyrotecas de guerra" This simply says gauntlets of war. By the 1300s gauntlets exist as plate and scale form so I have concerns on this as well.

Dan- these are all levied men so I hope that helps. I have more but I just saw this and have been swamped. I'll try to get more up.

RPM
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Håvard Kongsrud




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PostPosted: Mon 19 Dec, 2016 2:44 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

This thread need to be raised from its slumber. Anyone seen the 1345 town laws of Oldenburg, based on the Bremen laws? I have no idea if this is regular town milita or other kinds of troops and am not sure to what extent the text is complete. I've retrieved a couple of relevant sentences from dictionaries. Source: Vleck(e) i Karl Schiller og August Lübben 1880, Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch, bd 5, p 267 and treie/troie in der digitaler grimm.

For warclothes one should have: "[...] zinen helm ofte ysern hut, zine yseren huven, zine troyen, zine armeleden, zine vlekken, sinen kraghen [...]" (1345)
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Mart Shearer




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PostPosted: Mon 26 Jun, 2017 5:06 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Brunetto Latini, Libro di Montaperti, 1260, pp.373-4
https://archive.org/details/illibrodimontape00libruoft

Item, quod quilibet liabens equum pro Communi Florentie, tam
civitatis quam comitatus Florentie, teneatur et debeat portare et habere
in presenti exercitu sellam ad destrarium, covertas equi, panzeriam,
sive asbergum, caligas sive stivalettos de ferro, cappellum de acciario,
lamerias vel coraczas, lanceam, scutum sive targiam vel tabolaccium
amplum. Et quicumque contrafecerit et ita non portaverit et habuerit
in exercitu dieta arma, ut dictum est, puniatur et condempnetur, de
sella in soidis viginti florinoram parvorum, de covertis in soldis
sexsaginta, de panzeria sive asbergo in soldis centum, de caligis sive
stivalettis de ferro in soldis viginti, de cappello acciarii in soldis vi-
ginti, de lameriis sive coraczis in soldis viginti, de iancea in soldis
viginti, de scuto sive targia seu tavolaccio in soldis viginti florinorum
parvorum.

Item, quilibet pedes civitatis Florentie teneatur et debeat portare
et habere in presenti exercitu panzeriam sive corictum cum manicis
ferreis, aut manicos ferreos cum coraczinis, cappellum de acciario vel
cervelleria, gorgieriam sive collare de ferro, lanceam, scutum sive
tabolaccium magnum. Et quicumque contra fecerit et non portavcrit et
habuerit in exercitu dicta arma, ut dictum est, puniatur et condempnetur,
de panzeria sive coricto cum manicis sive de manicis cum coraczinis
in soldis viginti florinorum parvorum, de cappello sive cervelleria
in soldis decem, de gorgieria sive collare in soldis decem, de
Iancea in soldis decem, de scuto sive tabolaccio in soldis decem florinorum parvorum.

Item, omnes balistarii et arcatores civitatis et comitatus Florentie
teneantur et debeant portare et habere in presenti exercitu ea arma
omnia que requiruntur et necessaria eis sunt, sub pena quam Potestas
vellet auferre.

ferrum ferro acuitur et homo exacuit faciem amici sui
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Randall Moffett




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PostPosted: Wed 28 Jun, 2017 5:51 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

My goodness I had forgot about this. I am have been working on a book that includes some English info on this. I forgot how interesting this post was.

RPM
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Pieter B.





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PostPosted: Wed 05 Jul, 2017 12:09 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Håvard Kongsrud wrote:
This thread need to be raised from its slumber. Anyone seen the 1345 town laws of Oldenburg, based on the Bremen laws? I have no idea if this is regular town milita or other kinds of troops and am not sure to what extent the text is complete. I've retrieved a couple of relevant sentences from dictionaries. Source: Vleck(e) i Karl Schiller og August Lübben 1880, Mittelniederdeutsches Wörterbuch, bd 5, p 267 and treie/troie in der digitaler grimm.

For warclothes one should have: "[...] zinen helm ofte ysern hut, zine yseren huven, zine troyen, zine armeleden, zine vlekken, sinen kraghen [...]" (1345)


That's a nice bit of Middle Low German, shame there aren't to many people who can read it without effort. I'll give it my best shot.

"... His helm or iron hat, his iron huven?, his jack, his arm members?, his vlekken?, his collar

*huven could be translated to cap but I am not sure.

EDIT: Come to think of it iron huven might be a mail coif but that is just speculation on my part.

A second legislation from Bremen states the following.


"en iewelk lantman ... schal hebben to ewighen tyden ene troyen, enen ysern hud, en par wapenhanschen, enen schilt, ene worpbarden vnde enen peck van zestein voten vnde kortere nicht."

"And every husbandman... shall have at all times a jack, an iron hat, a pair of gauntlets, a shield, a throwing axe and a pike of sixteen feet and not shorter"


I find the throwing axe curious.
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