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Colin F.




Location: Bradford, UK
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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 6:46 am    Post subject: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

Just to set the scene, I'm on Facebook and I'm having a bit of banter with a bloke on a group called the 'Art of the Sword'.

The man I am arguing against runs a 'Medieval Fighting Group' out of Sydney in Australia. He claims, and I am wanting to put this across as clearly as possible so as not to distort his words, that over his 19 years of experience on full contact, full harness and fully armed battlefield experience, he has developed a system of medieval combat that is true to how people would have fought during that period. Further he said that his troop beat Stoccata at a meeting and through this he proved how more effective his style was. To quote "And as to what you do now? there is a similar institution here called Staccata. Their people know your people. We beat them too. All those German manuals, rather interesting, rather a nice collection, I'm sure you have them all. Read them, re-enact them and play."

I'm trying to argue that he should not be describing his group as anything medieval, bar the use of the equipment he uses, as he does not use any tactics, methods or styles that are described in period sources.

So is there a difference in historical validity between putting on the armour, training hard in your own manner and fighting in full kit on a battlefield and using the manuals to study and interprate the way the sword and other weapons were used by those in the past?

And as a secondary question, do you think I'm being a little too touchy getting involved with this kind of arguement?

Melchett - "In short, a German spy is giving away every one of our battle plans."
Cpt. Darling - "You look surprised, Blackadder."
Edmund - "I cerainly am, sir. I didn't realise we had any battle plans."
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Sean Flynt
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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 7:39 am    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

You'll find a partial answer here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_baby

-Sean

"Everywhere I have searched for peace and nowhere found it, except in a corner with a book"- Thomas a Kempis (d. 1471)
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Kel Rekuta




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 7:42 am    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

Colin F. wrote:
Further he said that his troop beat Stoccata at a meeting and through this he proved how more effective his style was. To quote "And as to what you do now? there is a similar institution here called Staccata. Their people know your people. We beat them too. All those German manuals, rather interesting, rather a nice collection, I'm sure you have them all. Read them, re-enact them and play."



Ask him the date and place of this particular incident. I'm sure Stephen Hand or Paul Wagner will be aware of it, if it happened. They pop by here once in a while. Should be an interesting tale.

As to putting on harness and bashing around, sure anyone can do that. A couple hundred thousand SCAdians do it all the time. Some of them are frighteningly effective fighters. Most, not so much. Period treatises don't make a student of armoured combat an absolute kick-ass fighter. Studying them helps one become effective with solid theory and techniques to deal with the common brute. No need for months and years of beatings to learn effectiveness on the field. The study still requires a hell of a lot of sweat, expense and travel. Nothing worthwhile is easy or cheap.

Kel Rekuta
AEMMA Toronto
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Stephen Hand




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 7:43 am    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

So who's this chap who's supposedly beaten us up? I'm intrigued. I'm sure I would have noticed another swordsmanship group in Sydney, especially if I'd fought them and lost.

Cheers

Stephen Hand
Editor, Spada, Spada II
Author of English Swordsmanship, Medieval Sword and Shield

Stoccata School of Defence
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Jean Henri Chandler




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 7:55 am    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

Colin F. wrote:

So is there a difference in historical validity between putting on the armour, training hard in your own manner and fighting in full kit on a battlefield and using the manuals to study and interprate the way the sword and other weapons were used by those in the past?

And as a secondary question, do you think I'm being a little too touchy getting involved with this kind of arguement?



I don't know anything about Australian HEMA groups, and of course it depends on the individual physical abilities of the fighters, but if he is going up against an experienced HEMA fighter he is going to lose. There is a huge difference. If this guy can beat good HEMA fighters ask him to show a video, digital cameras are practically everywhere these days and it's nothing to make a quick video clip.

I'm not saying anything about any specific HEMA group, in Australia or anywhwere else, but all sorts of people study HEMA just like all sorts of people do re-enactment or SCA. Some groups have good culture of training and both understand and adhere to the ancient manuals, others are not even in the ball park. Especially, IMO, many of the groups which do no real sparring.

I did full-contact stick fighting from the age of 15 until I was about 24, so I guess thats, what, nine years? When I kind of got back into it in 1998, and became interested in HEMA, I thought I had seen it all, and I thought i was some hot s--t fighter. I hosted an ARMA event in 2004 and it was a revelation. Sure there were some fighters there who I could beat, especially with sword and shield, due to ten years of experience and a good understanding of timing and reach. But when I went up against their top fencers, regardless of what weapons I was using, it was like walking into a cuisineart.

HEMA is extremely ergonomic and efficient. An experienced stick-fighter or live-steel re-enactor might be able to displace an initial attack, but he is going to be amazed by the followup; a false-edge twitch-cut to the opposite side (which is MUCH faster than true-edge to true-edge which is what I always see non HEMA people doing) a winding into a thrust, a half-sword disarm, or a miesterhau which cuts you even as it displaces your attack.

These are not things you can simply invent out of your head. It took hundreds, probably thousands of years to develop that martial art. it's amusing to think that a re-enactor thinks he has invented a system which is "historical" and yet superior to the Art practiced by the people who actually had to fight for life and death, when nearly the entire society needed to practice fencing systematically and efficiently as possible with their very lives at stake rather than a handful of people in a hobby.

The differences between HEMA and what you learn in combat sports, re-enacting, or some stick fighting you learned on your own, are similar to that of a street-fighter or a amateur boxer going up against a trained MMA fighter. The results are similar too, from my experience.


Tell that guy he is invited to come to visit in New Orleans any time he likes, we'll provide room and board and plenty of friendly sparring opportunities. I'm only a mediocre HEMA fighter so he should handle-up on me and my lads. And we will video the fights and put them on youtube for people to judge (so he can gloat over 'em with his mates when he gets back to Oz).

J

EDIT: and tell him he can bring his own video camera too.

I should also ad, that I have a lot of respect for re-enactors, I think it's cool what they do and I would probably get into it myself if I had the time and the money. A lot of re-enactors can use their experience to become very good HEMA fighters once they learn the basics of one of the period systems. Same goes for EMA and FMA fighters as well. Our group has a former SCA - rapier guy, an Escrima fighter, and a Wushu / Kung Fu fighter. All are pretty good HEMA fighters now (as good as me anyway).

System D'Armes Historical European fencing in New Orleans

Essays on Hroarr

Introducing the Codex Guide to the Medieval Baltic


Last edited by Jean Henri Chandler on Thu 07 Jun, 2007 8:15 am; edited 3 times in total
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Colin F.




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 7:58 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Marcus Laruens of this group: http://www.historicguild.com/members.php?show...2&hd=1

regards,

Colin

I won't post what he has posted directly to me over this, if you wish I can quote you what he has described HEMA as over PM.[/url]

Melchett - "In short, a German spy is giving away every one of our battle plans."
Cpt. Darling - "You look surprised, Blackadder."
Edmund - "I cerainly am, sir. I didn't realise we had any battle plans."
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Jean Henri Chandler




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 8:02 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Colin F. wrote:
Marcus Laruens of this group: http://www.historicguild.com/members.php?show...2&hd=1

regards,

Colin

I won't post what he has posted directly to me over this, if you wish I can quote you what he has described HEMA as over PM.[/url]


PM me with that too Happy

And please extend my invitation to him.

Does he have any videos on that site because I couldn't find any.

J

System D'Armes Historical European fencing in New Orleans

Essays on Hroarr

Introducing the Codex Guide to the Medieval Baltic
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Colin F.




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 8:05 am    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

Sean Flynt wrote:
You'll find a partial answer here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_baby


Thanks Sean, I thought as much Happy Thankfully, I've got more back up from some other HEMA people on it now.

Colin

Melchett - "In short, a German spy is giving away every one of our battle plans."
Cpt. Darling - "You look surprised, Blackadder."
Edmund - "I cerainly am, sir. I didn't realise we had any battle plans."
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Jean Henri Chandler




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 8:25 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Also, it doesn't have to really be an argument. See if you can engage him more positively instead of butting heads. He has a lot of experience he is proud of and has come far, no doubt, in his pursuit of armed combat. He probably really likes it. He just needs to understand that HEMA is more of exactly the kind of thing he is interested in.

Point out to him what he is doing is cool, he's a real tough guy, he likes to fight, has a bunch of pals with armor and stuff and plenty of experience. All of that is great.

Ask him if he really thinks there is nothing he doesn't know about individual weapon combat. Does he really think he has already figured out everything? Not a chance he couldn't find something in one of those books which could significantly improve his game? Ask him if he's willing to put money on that.

Based on what he has said about the HEMA manuals, I don't think he really understands what they are. Point out, these are not physics texts, or doctoral analysis of English literature. They are pragmatic field manuals for fighting. The language may be archaic and foreign, and can be hard to interpret, but the techniques are not complicated. To the contrary, they are simple, lethal, and extremely pragmatic.

Present it as a friendly challenge to him this way: Buy him a copy of Toblers book or Lindholms book, and ask him to take a look at it and see if he can't find something he could use. Bet him $20. I'll send him money myself if he reads the book and says there was nothing in there that was new to him.

Jean

EDIT: Scratch that I'm going to email him myself and offer this little bet...

System D'Armes Historical European fencing in New Orleans

Essays on Hroarr

Introducing the Codex Guide to the Medieval Baltic
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Colin F.




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 8:36 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Jean,
I've pretty much done everything but the last thing you suggested. Each time I replied before I wrote this topic here I've tried to emphasize that there is absolutely nothing wrong with what he is doing. As many before have said you can learn a hell of a lot tactically, mentally and physically about the rigors of combat and have a great time doing it.

"Have you worked out yet I'm not knocking your ability or what you're doing."

I'll try to see if your suggestion works about reading the books.

cheers,

Colin

Melchett - "In short, a German spy is giving away every one of our battle plans."
Cpt. Darling - "You look surprised, Blackadder."
Edmund - "I cerainly am, sir. I didn't realise we had any battle plans."
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Jean Henri Chandler




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 9:24 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Colin F. wrote:
Jean,
I've pretty much done everything but the last thing you suggested. Each time I replied before I wrote this topic here I've tried to emphasize that there is absolutely nothing wrong with what he is doing. As many before have said you can learn a hell of a lot tactically, mentally and physically about the rigors of combat and have a great time doing it.

"Have you worked out yet I'm not knocking your ability or what you're doing."

I'll try to see if your suggestion works about reading the books.

cheers,

Colin


I already sent him essentially what i wrote above. We'll see if he responds.

J

System D'Armes Historical European fencing in New Orleans

Essays on Hroarr

Introducing the Codex Guide to the Medieval Baltic
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Gary A. Chelette




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 12:35 pm    Post subject: Re: What is historical authenticity?         Reply with quote

Sean Flynt wrote:
You'll find a partial answer here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tar_baby


Excellent!

Are you scared, Connor?
No, Cousin Dugal. I'm not!
Don't talk nonsense, man. I peed my kilt the first time I went into battle.
Oh, aye. Angus pees his kilt all the time!
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Stephen Hand




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PostPosted: Thu 07 Jun, 2007 9:24 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

OK, if it is Marcus Laurens, I've heard of him but never met the man. I haven't heard of anyone from Stoccata fighting him either.

Where I think this comes from is that he's set up a sword and shield tournament circuit. The rules in place for this are such that no one from Stoccata had any interest in taking part. I don't have a copy of the rules they used for their first tournament but they basically precluded the use of most of the core principles of historical sword and shield - hence our lack of interest. I believe that a re-enactor who has attended one of my seminars and has done some single sword private lessons with Paul Wagner took part in their tournament and did OK but didn't win it. This person is not a member of Stoccata.

So, it would seem that beating Stoccata means beating a guy who's taken some lessons in a different weapon from Stoccata but is not a member. Somewhat of a long bow I would think.

I don't see the point of competitive fighting using rules that require a fundamentally different fighting style to the historical one we teach. I've played that game in the past as a re-enactor and have no further interest in doing so. If people want to fight sword and shield with no offensive shield work, no arm hits and no thrusts in the high line then I'll pass thank you very much.

And I would appreciate anything more you have by PM thanks.

Cheers
Stephen

Stephen Hand
Editor, Spada, Spada II
Author of English Swordsmanship, Medieval Sword and Shield

Stoccata School of Defence
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Bob Burns




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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 9:38 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

This thread really intrigues me, though I am no swordsman, I am a greenhorn with swords, a very nice and large collection, lots of sword instruction books, all of Christian Tobler's, Stephen Hand's, Guy Windsor's, Tom Leoni's book, even "In Service of the Duke".
However, I am a medically retired 1st degree black belt in karate, promoted by Keith Hackney of UFC fame, known as
"The Giant Killer" for his defeat of Emanuel Yarborough 6' 8" 616 lb. #2 rated Sumo, Keith at the time was just under 6 foot and 210 lbs Kenpo Karate expert and a former Navy SEAL. I also studied UFC style fighting under Keith, which is no holds barred combat. I was 47 in Oct. 2004 when I got my promotion and also learned I had lot's of arthritis in my spine and had to quit.
I only wrote this of myself to establish that though I am no swordsman, I am thoroughly trained in unarmed martial arts and from Keith's school especially, I know the difference between sport combat and reality combat. They are not remotely the same!
OK, here is what I am intrigued about and the question I have.
Given that yes it's a rough and tough combat that this person is doing and other's who partake as well! These are not live blades, everyone knows they are going to live and go home after it's all over.
Form and style vs. real life deadly combat! In karate they teach katas, self defense techniques, flashy kicks, punches, blocks, parries, trappings, counter fighting etc. In reality, real life death street situation, all that goes out the window, any karate black belt that tries the fancy stuff he learns in the dojo against an accomplished streetfighter will get himself killed!

My style is better than your style in unarmed combat went out the window when the UFC and PRIDE came about. Sumo will not always beat karate. Karate will not always beat jiujitsu, kung fu is not better than karate. If you know stand up fighting and don't know ground, your a dead man when that grappler gets a hold of you. If your a ground fighter and don't know stand up, and don't get a hold of that stand up fighter, your going to have brain damage!

How can this guy possibly think he is doing reality medieval combat? "It is a Nightmare In There!" Per Keith Hackney.

Absolutely ridiculous! I highly doubt those warriors were steadfastly sticking to "styles". Yes the style would have been a main school of combat and would have strong influence of how the warrior fights, but you do what it takes to stay alive! That sword, axe, spear, etc., is Not a blunt!
It's sharp, if it gets you, chances are, you will die Exclamation

OK, for whatever it's worth that's my intrigue and question.

Sincerely!

Bob
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Michael Olsen





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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 10:16 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Stephen Hand wrote:
The rules in place for this are such that no one from Stoccata had any interest in taking part. I don't have a copy of the rules they used for their first tournament but they basically precluded the use of most of the core principles of historical sword and shield - hence our lack of interest.

I don't see the point of competitive fighting using rules that require a fundamentally different fighting style to the historical one we teach. I've played that game in the past as a re-enactor and have no further interest in doing so. If people want to fight sword and shield with no offensive shield work, no arm hits and no thrusts in the high line then I'll pass thank you very much.

And I would appreciate anything more you have by PM thanks.


This is something especially interesting, I think. And it's something that always annoys me a little bit when I hear about it. I wonder how many of their fighters realize that they are not practicing anything close at all to an effective combat technique? Sure, it's all fun and games when sporting, and you can manipulate the rules all you want. Indeed, sporting can be instructive in some things. However, put next to combat, it is nothing less than artificial.

To anyone looking to spar with individuals who practice this or any other similar "sport art", please insist on using more valid rules. Last I checked, medieval and renaissance soldiers didn't agree not to use their shields offensively or to not hit large target areas (arms, legs, etc).

As to the question of historical accuracy...
If his group were using entirely (and perfectly) accurate armour, shields, weapons, and accountrements and were striking actual killing blows, then I have no doubt that over time a very similar fighting system would emerge. However, it doesn't seem likely that all of them satisfy the first portion of the conditions, and as killing is still illegal, certainly not the last. They are likely using somewhat improper kits, definitely pulling blows, definitely limiting targets, and definitely limiting techniques. How historical is that?

About as historical as becoming an expert blackpowder marksman using paintball guns. The principles are the same, but the specifics are divergent. And in fact, to become any good with a paintball gun, you must use different methods than with a blackpowder rifle.

In this respect, likely using inaccurate tools and artificial rules, anomalies and anachronisms are inherent. The system simply cannot be considered historical, except in it's most basic appearance.

Michael Olsen
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Eric Meulemans
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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 10:27 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

From their website (emphasis is mine):

    - All weapons must be sanctioned by senior members
    - Minimum safety equipment must be worn
    - Only trained members can take the field
    - All blows must be pulled.
    - Agreed target areas are the only allowable places to hit.
    - A combatant deemed as dead must fall to the ground.
    - Headhits are allowed but must be a proper re-enacated blow.
    - No 'Wraparounds' meaning no flicking around behind the opponents shield in an attempt to strike the back.
    - Martial's say is final.
    - Agreed rules of the day may superceed these rules
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Jean Henri Chandler




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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 11:48 am    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Bob Burns wrote:
Absolutely ridiculous! I highly doubt those warriors were steadfastly sticking to "styles". Yes the style would have been a main school of combat and would have strong influence of how the warrior fights, but you do what it takes to stay alive! That sword, axe, spear, etc., is Not a blunt!
It's sharp, if it gets you, chances are, you will die Exclamation



Hi Bob,

Good post, you raise some good points.

I have a few comments:

1) The Eastern Martial arts you mentioned, as well as Western Arts like American / UK Boxing and Greco / Roman wrestling, are essentially (to a greater or lesser degree) sportified or dancified derivitaves of earlier Martial Arts traditions. People are no longer routinely killing each other using Kung Fu, or Kempo. As these Arts became adapted for physical education, sport, dance, theater etc., they lost a great deal of their original lethality and efficiency. Part of what MMA has done is help reconstruct that, fill in the gaps if you will between the different disciplines or schools.

2) Similarly, many of the modern Martial Arts schools either did no sparring at all, or did sparring with very restrictive rules (just like Kendo or the SCA for example in sword-fighting). Again, this was another way in which MMA was a revelation. You could instantly see the difference between those who did Katas and forms only, and those who sparred realistically.

3) By contrast, the HEMA manuals were written at a time when sword fighting (and unarmed grappling, knife fighting, staff etc. etc.) was very much being practiced on a daily bases, to the death. In fact many of the fechbuchs have sections specifically written to teach people to fight for Judicial combat, a kind of physical lawsuit. (Imagine if no-holds barred MMA fights could decide lawsuits today!)

4) Modern HEMA groups, or at least the ones worth their salt, regularly do almost unrestricted full-contact sparring. Lots of people do drill or free play with steel blunts or hardwood wasters, (or aluminum or nylon) but most groups today also spar full-contact with shinai, padded weapons, or some other full-speed simulator. My group accepts all comers. Anybody in the world can walk up to our Saturday drill, sign a waiver, take a sparring weapon and try as hard as they can to strike me in the head and knock me out. Our training weapons are unlikely to kill you as long as you have a suitible helmet, but they can remind you of your mortality, trust me. We have had concussions, a broken collar bone, broken hands, broken arm, broken ribs, etc. etc. etc. I broke my hand fencing with some ARMA guys in 2005 in Houston.

The only "rules" in most cases I'm aware of are that we fight under the assumption that the weapons are real so you don't keep going after you are in fact cut across the head. You stop, reset and fight another bout. But even in MMA you stop when one guy taps out, and there are even certain attacks you don't do because they are too lethal or too likely to say, break an arm.

Untrained street fighters and amateur boxers get 'owned' in Pride and UFC just as much as say, a Shotokan guy who doesn't have a ground game. What MMA taught us was that you need both the experience of realistic sparring, AND training in sophisticated techiques (some having turned out more useful than others)

Just like MMA fighters, HEMA fighters learn all aspects of a fight. It's a similar correlation to striking, grappling, and ground. In MMA you have long range, short range, kampfringen (which is almost exactly like MMA and includes takedowns, throws, locks, breaks, strikes, kicks etc. etc., both with and without the benefit of a weapon to help you maim or kill your opponent)

The original Martial Arts of Europe were not over-specialized sport fighting systems, they were generalized fighting systems (and there were and are many different kinds of approaches) which were simple, direct, and lethal. It's no accident that it is actually a lot like MMA. In fact many MMA fighters do HEMA. I know several personally. I also have friends who don't do HEMA but who did BJJ for ten and fifteen years, and they have commented to me that they see dozens of BJJ moves in the unarmed fighting sections of the Fechtbuchs I have shown them. One guy took a long time convincing that the book I was showing him was actually from 15th Century Italy and not something modern.

Just my $.02

J

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Bob Burns




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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 2:09 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Even as brutal as the fighting sport of the UFC and PRIDE are today, they no longer allow many strikes, etc., of the early days of the UFC when there were no weight divisions, head butts were allowed, etc., back when Keith Hackney, Royce Graycie and many others were in the newfound sport which was caused to come about by the many years of egos of the various arts saying their particular martial art was deadlier than the next.
Keith Hackney does not teach the modern day form of karate, he teaches it in it's original lethal form. However, what you say is very true of most martial arts schools in this day and age.
However, even the UFC at no time allowed eye gouging, biting, groin strikes, small joint manipulation and host of other maiming techniques that instructors like Keith Hackney teaches for the street.
My contention is that no professional boxer would survive against a champion level UFC fighter, he'd be dove in on at the knees and taken to the ground out of his boxing game. This is not to debate one art against another art, merely to point out that the UFC is as real as it can get, without the risk of permanent crippling or death being a large possibility.
Therefore, not even the UFC can simulate the brutal reality of a street fight, anymore than could the most brutal form of armed combat with blunt swords, shields, etc., simulate the reality of a medieval battle to the death!
My black belt was for hardcore karate fighting, but it was not for UFC abilities or similar curriculum, this is a whole different dimension that takes a lot longer than hardcore karate to get to that 1st dan level. Two different worlds.
Which again comes to my question. How can this person or anyone remotely think they are engaging in the real combat level and style of the medieval battlefield? Absolutely Ridiculous!



www.hackneyscombat.com

Very Excellent Points Jean!

Bob
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Chad Arnow
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PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 2:36 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

The bottom line is that none of us are participating in real medieval combat. Not one of us. Happy There are many schools of thought on how to recreate something that simulates it (which is all we can do), and we don't have to agree on how that's done. There may be more than one right way to go about it and there are certainly more than one wrong way to go about it. In the end of the day, does it matter? We all are in this hobby (and that's all it is) for different reasons and some like to seek their own path of rediscovering ancient arts.

This thread has evolved into trashing someone's school of thought/way of doing things. I don't like that.

Feel free to point out what you don't like about this person and how they do things in a civil and professional tone then move on. Ganging up to criticize someone who's not defending themselves by participating here is not what we're looking to do on this site.

Talk about these other issues, disagree with that group's methodology, and point out their misstatements all you want. But do it without the condescension; be civil, please.

Come on guys, I know you know this isn't how we do things here. Please help keep your moderators' hair from graying prematurely. Happy

Happy

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Dan Howard




Location: Maitland, NSW, Australia
Joined: 08 Dec 2004

Spotlight topics: 2
Posts: 3,158

PostPosted: Sat 09 Jun, 2007 3:11 pm    Post subject:         Reply with quote

Eric Meulemans wrote:

- Headhits are allowed but must be a proper re-enacated blow.

This is my favourite. What exactly is a "proper re-enacted blow" to the head? IMO to meet this definition a significant amount of blood and/or brains should be involved.
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